Exercise 1.

Complete the sentences with
must have, can't have, or needn't have, + past participle.

1.  Jamie passed his exam with a distinction.  He __________ (study) very hard.

2.  We found the exam extremely easy.  We __________ (study) so hard.

3.  Janet failed her exam.  She __________ (study) much.

4.  We __________ (hurry).  We got there far too early.

5.  Neil's looking very happy.  He __________ (get) the payrise he wanted.

6.  Neil's looking very annoyed.  He __________ (get) the payrise he wanted.

7.  I can't find my book anywhere.  I __________ (leave) it on the train.

8.  You __________ (make) lunch.  We've already eaten.

Exercise 2.

1.  I think the match __________ (start).  Everybody's gone into the stadium and you can hear them cheering.

2.  Have you seen the Prime Minister's new house?  It __________ (cost) a fortune!

3.  Karen __________ (take) the car.  The keys are still here.

4.  You __________ (water) the garden.  It's just started raining!

5.  In the end Gary's injury wasn't very serious and the doctor said he could keep on playing football.  We __________ (worry) so much.

6.  Tina's cake was a disaster.  She __________ (follow) the recipe very well.

7.  In the end it didn't rain, so I __________ (bring) my brolly*.

8.  "I saw Grace this morning at the bank".
-  "You __________ (do)!  She's away on her honeymoon.  You __________ (see) someone else."


  * brolly = umbrella
Must have + past participle
to say that you're sure something was true or happened.
eg. It's 10.30 and Mike still isn't at the office.  I think he
must have overslept.

Can't/Couldn't have + past participle

to say that you're sure something wasn't true or didn't happen.
eg. Theresa walked past me without saying a word.  She
can't have seen me.

Needn't have + past participle:
to talk about an action which was done but which was unnecessary.
eg.  You
needn't have gone to the supermarket.  We've still got plenty of food.
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